L.V.Yashina, V.I.Shtanov, Z.G.Yanenko. The application of VLS growth technique to bulk semiconductors. Journal of Crystal Growth, 2003, v.252, p.68-78.
The results of the application of vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) growth method to bulk IV-VI Group semiconductors, namely PbTe, SnTe, GeTe, PbSe, (Pb,Sn)Te, and (Pb,Ga)Te, are reported. The choice of the growth conditions, based on T-x-y phase diagram, is described. It was found that the best results in composition control and crystal microstructure can be reached when the VLS conditions are applied both to the growth zone and to the source and temperature difference between growth and evaporation zones less are than 25K. The growth rate was measured as a function of temperature difference, vapour composition, the dimensions of growth container and the height of liquid layer in the source. The growth rate seems to be controlled by vapour transport.